Endometriosis is yet another common problem among women which causes infertility.
Endometriosis is caused when the tissue of the uterine lining (the lining of the womb) is present on organs near the uterus. Endometriosis is usually found in the lower abdomen, or pelvis, but can appear anywhere in the body. Women with endometriosis often have lower abdominal pain, pain with periods, or pain with sexual intercourse, and may report having a hard time getting pregnant. On the other hand, some women with endometriosis may not have any symptoms at all.
Between 20 and 40% of women with infertility will have endometriosis. Endometriosis seems to impair fertility in 2 ways: first, by causing distortion of the fallopian tubes so that they are unable to pick up the egg after ovulation, and second, by creating inflammation that can adversely affect the function of the ovary, egg, fallopian tubes or uterus.
Endometriosis can only be truly diagnosed by a doctor performing a laparoscopy (a surgery where a doctor looks in the abdomen with a camera usually through the belly button). However endometriotic cysts can be diagnosed on pelvic ultrasound.
The most conservative therapy for endometriosis is with medications. Surgery can not only help to diagnose endometriosis, but can also be used to treat endometriosis. Surgery can be used to remove the endometriosis or to burn the endometriosis lesions outside of the uterus to make them go away. It is also used to get rid of scar tissue so that the ovaries and tubes can go back to their normal location in the pelvis. Surgery has been shown to improve pain symptoms associated with endometriosis and may also help women become pregnant.
If a woman with endometriosis is having trouble getting pregnant, there are different medications and treatments available that can help her to become pregnant.
In Grade 1 or 2 endometriosis, laparoscopic surgery followed by trying naturally or simple treatment such as IUI is beneficial. However in severe grade endometriosis-Grade 3 or 4,IVF is the way forward.